Dictionary of Procurement Terms

Welcome to the NIGP Online Dictionary of Procurement Terms, the comprehensive reference for public purchasing terms and concepts.

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  • APC

  • APDM


  • APL (Approved/Acceptable Products List)

  • Apparent Agency (a.k.a. “estoppel agency”)

    See Law of Agency. See Also Apparent Authority.
  • Apparent Authority

    The reasonable impression that an agent is permitted to act on their principal's authority even though that authority has not been granted.
  • Apparent Low Bidder

    The label used for a bidder that has been determined to have provided the lowest price in a bid or quote, prior to determination of whether the bid is responsive and from a responsible bidder.
  • Appeal

    Challenge to an entity that asks for a decision, typically a solicitation award decision, to be reviewed and changed.
  • Appeal Process

    The method defined in bid documents, code, or law that dictates the manner in which a party may file an appeal regarding an official decision. The appeal process may vary among different public agencies.
  • Appellate Court

    A court that hears cases appealed from lower courts.