Dictionary of Procurement Terms

Welcome to the NIGP Online Dictionary of Procurement Terms, the comprehensive reference for public purchasing terms and concepts.

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  • APL (Approved/Acceptable Products List)

  • Apparent Agency (a.k.a. “estoppel agency”)

  • Apparent Authority

    The reasonable impression that an agent is permitted to act on their principal's authority even though that authority has not been granted. See also: Actual Authority.
  • Apparent Low Bidder

    The label used for a bidder that has been determined to have provided the lowest price in a bid or quote, prior to determination of whether the bid is responsive and from a responsible bidder.
  • Appeal

    Challenge to an entity that asks for a decision, typically a solicitation award decision, to be reviewed and changed. See also: Appeal Process.
  • Appeal Process

    The method defined in bid documents, code, or law that dictates how a party may file an appeal regarding an official decision. The appeal process may vary among different public agencies. See also: Appeal.
  • Appellate Court

    A court that hears cases appealed from lower courts.
  • Appropriation

    1. Public funds set aside or held by an entity 2. The authorization of an entity to expend public funds for a specific purpose, good, or service.
  • Approved Equivalent




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