Dictionary of Procurement Terms

Welcome to the NIGP Online Dictionary of Procurement Terms, the comprehensive reference for public purchasing terms and concepts.

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Search Results: 1-10 of 50 results for “U”
  • U.S. Communities

    U.S. Communities Government Purchasing Alliance is a government purchasing cooperative that reduces the cost of goods and services by aggregating the purchasing power of public agencies nationwide. U.S. Communities has over 55,000 participating agencies, from both the public and nonprofit sectors.
  • UCC

  • UL

  • Ultra Vires Action

    An action that is beyond the powers granted by authority or by law.
  • UMA

  • Unallowable Cost

    Any cost that, in accordance with pertinent laws or regulations, cannot be included in prices or cost-reimbursements under a contract to which the cost is allocable. (Nash, Schooner, & O’Brien, 1998)
  • Unbalanced Bid

    A bid that contains pricing aberrations. This may happen in time and material contracts or construction contracts where upfront payment may be made for mobilization. Unbalanced bids may be deemed to be non-responsive, and may be both mathematically unbalanced and materially unbalanced. Many public entities utilize a bid analysis procedure to help identify unbalanced bids. (Martin & Miller, 2006)
  • Unbundling

    Dividing a service into smaller portions to encourage competition. Frequently done on the basis of geography, for example, a large service area, such as a city or county is divided into smaller geographical regions.
  • Unconscionability

    Generally implies an absence of meaningful choice on the part of one of the contracting parties. A contract clause that is so one-sided as to oppress or unfairly surprise a party. It is usually grounds for contract avoidance, for example, where it is the result of an obvious mistake on the part of the bidder. (Garner, 2004)
  • Undercapitalization

    The lack of funds to successfully operate a business, which may lead to business failure. (Schiller, 2000)
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