Unit Labor Cost
The amount paid to workers to
produce one unit of output, calculated by
multiplying the hourly rate for direct labor by
the time it takes to complete one such unit.
Unit of Measure
A measure of packaging (e.g.,
carton, box, bottle).
The cost per unit of a product or
service (e.g., price per ton, per labor hour, or
United Nations’ Convention on Contracts for the International Sale of Goods (CISG)
body of law that governs contracts for the
international sale of commercial goods.
United States Code (USC)
codification and compilation of all the
permanent and general laws of United States
Universal Product Code (UPC)
bar code that uniquely identifies a
Universal Public Procurement Certification Council (UPPCC)
An independent entity
formed to govern and administer the Certified
Public Procurement Officer (CPPO) and the
Certified Professional Public Buyer (CPPB)
certification programs. This non-profit
organization was jointly established by The
Institute of Governmental Purchasing, Inc.
(NIGP) and the National Association of State
Procurement Officials (NASPO) in 1978. The
UPPCC is composed of members from the
California Association of Public Procurement
Officers (CAPPO), the Florida Association of
Public Procurement Officers (FAPPO), the
National Association of Educational
Procurement (NAEP), and the National
Procurement Institute (NPI). The UPPCC is
responsible for establishing, monitoring, and
revising program requirements, as well as
developing and approving content for the
A term used when
specifications or terms and conditions limit
competition arbitrarily, without reasonably
promoting the fulfillment of the procurement
needs of a contracting authority.
An offer submitted by a
contractor/supplier or consultant in the
absence of a bid or solicitation from a buyer.
May be submitted in response to a perceived
need but not in response to a buyer’s formal
Market that exhibits short-term
fluctuations. Oil, minerals, agricultural
products, and animal by-products typically
dominate this type of market. The supply of
these raw materials is frequently influenced
by political forces, weather conditions,
speculative financial actions, and other
unpredictable reasons not governed by the
laws of supply and demand.